That, the authors argue, suggests women’s preferences for family and career are often formed early in life, and transmitted from generation to generation. Harassed and underpaid, working women have often been forced to accept lower wages,  and lower odds of being hired (paywall) or promoted (pdf). The data suggests the gender pay gap comes down to one major factor: workplace flexibility. OECD countries have seen a similar narrowing of the gender pay gap. After all, we can’t force women to apply for higher-paying jobs or to work longer hours, right? Years after taking “daddy-only” leave, gender specialization in households fell significantly with increase parental time with children. Strong structural issues and social pressures influence, or erode, their ability to choose whether to stay at home or reenter the workforce. Only 65.8% of women with young children in the EU are working, compared with 89.1% of men. Sectoral segregation: Around 30% of the total gender pay gap is explained by the overrepresentation of women in relatively low-paying sectors, such as care and education. Researchers in Denmark found (pdf) the motherhood penalty was higher for women raised in traditional families in which the mother worked less than the father (the paternal family’s context had no effect). More than 40 percent of the gender wage gap is ... range from overt sexism to unintentional gender-based discrimination to reluctance among women to negotiate for higher pay. ), But when economists look at the source of the pay gap across the US economy as a whole, discrimination is not the culprit. Men tend to have more work experience than women do, the study found. This has helped ease the disparity by nearly 7 percent, as shown in Figure 1, but women’s access to college and advanced degrees has not been enough to close the gap completely. The data suggests the gender pay gap comes down to one major factor: workplace flexibility. Causes of unequal pay between men and women, This site is managed by the Directorate-General for Communication, Aid, Development cooperation, Fundamental rights, Follow the European Commission on social media. Here’s how they’re moving us forward. They even worked more dangerous routes (those with more accidents) in exchange for more desirable times. Women need an additional degree in order to make as much as men with a lower degree over the course of a lifetime. Together, these changes made pharmacists, in economists’ parlance, more substitutable. This, together with a lack of childcare facilities, means that women are often forced to leave the labour market. Unfortunately, decades of evidence have revealed a far more complicated story, and it is clear that the gender wage gap is about more than just personal choice. But in order to achieve pay equity, it helps to understand the origins of the gap. On Equal Pay Day, a University of Pennsylvania economist tells Fortune some of the reasons the gender pay gap is still an issue. The choices that women make about their careers don’t happen in a vacuum. For a long time, we’ve heard about the kinds of policies that can make workplaces better suited for parents. Equal pay for equal work. And not just to earning less money—women who work fewer hours also gain less experience over time. The reasons sound familiar: reductions in labor force participation, hours of work, and wage rates, according to a 2017 study (pdf). Daycare, when offered by employers or by the government, can ease the burden on parents scrambling with the logistics or funding of their own. Far more women than men choose to take parental leave. Read more stories here. By Maricar Santos posted Mar 2nd, 2017 at 11:45am. “In all of these ways, pharmacy has become one of the most egalitarian of US professions,” Goldin writes. Workplace flexibility has been steadily increasing over the past few decades. Sarah Jane Glynn is a Senior Policy Analyst at the Center. Another quarter of the wage gap is attributable to the differences in wages paid by industries that employ mostly men or mostly women. As men and women make different choices about how to spend their time, workplace inflexibility harms women most. “This doesn’t mean that gender discrimination doesn’t exist,” says economist Federico Anzil, who recently conducted a study on the wage gap using US Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) data. Women and men still tend to work in different jobs. Americans, through bold, progressive ideas, as well as strong An all-too-common response to workers and advocates concerned about the 23-cent gender wage gap for full-time year-round workers across occupations is that it is just a byproduct of the choices women make: choices to work fewer hours, take on lower-paying jobs, or opt out of the workforce for longer periods of time than men. This is less clear but perhaps more troubling. Today, it’s a female-majority occupation with high pay and a very small pay gap (8%). Among men and women employed full time, 60 percent of the wage gap can be attributed to known factors such as work experience at 10 percent, union status at 4 percent, and the aforementioned choice of occupation at 27 percent, among other measureable differences. Every single statistic, or at least the ones that are credible, shows that the gender pay gap exists simply because men and women are different. The average woman earns an annual median of $40,000, compared to $48,900 for men. Even in a place like Denmark, which gives new parents 52 weeks of leave and subsidized daycare, the arrival of a child still leads to a 20% gender pay gap for women (pdf). It is a real and persistent problem, and it is a problem that calls for immediate and nimble policy solutions. In some cases, women may earn less than men for doing jobs of equal value. If society wants to narrow the pay gap, the answer may be simpler — and harder — than we think. One of the major reasons, she proposes, is a “daddy bonus” compared to a “motherhood penalty,” she writes. Men tended to work longer hours, took on more last-minute shifts, and arranged schedules to secure 83% more overtime hours per year. While government policies or more shared responsibility at home “wouldn’t hurt,” the main changes she says involve how employees pay for workers’ time and encourage flexible schedules. Kick off each morning with coffee and the Daily Brief (BYO coffee). While around 60% of new university graduates are women, they are a minority in fields like mathematics, computing and engineering. The way to get more dads to take parental leave? (see Figure 1) A woman’s work experience is abbreviated if she needs to take maternity leave or take time off from a job to care for a child, which she is more likely to do than her male counterpart. And that’s because workplaces still value long, inflexible hours. But it wasn’t always that way. ‮g​r​o​.​s​s​e​r​g​o​r​p​n​a​c​i​r​e​m​a​@​k​c​i​s​u​c​j‭, ‮g​r​o​.​s​s​e​r​g​o​r​p​n​a​c​i​r​e​m​a​@​s​n​i​l​l​o​c​r‭, The US-Japan Alliance: Priorities for 2021, EVENT ADVISORY: ‘We Are Essential’: Immigrants and the Path Toward a Resilient Economy, RELEASE: New CAP Column Shows How California’s Proposition 16 Was Not A Bellwether on Affirmative Action, RELEASE: Biden Administration Should Restore DOJ’s Office for Access to Justice, CAP Column Says. During this period, women’s wages per hour are equal to, or even slightly higher than, men’s wages. Segregation is frequently linked to stereotypes. “Our research suggests that at least two-thirds of the current gender gap can be explained not by outright gender-based discrimination, but by the interaction between (seemingly gender neutral) inflexible workplace policies and people’s personal life preferences and constraints,” says Bolotnyy. The Center for American Progress is an independent nonpartisan childcare and household work foremost among them. As men and women make different decisions when it comes to their working hours—for all sorts of reasons, but childcare and household work foremost among them— their earnings change accordingly. “Employers read fathers as more stable and committed to their work; they have a family to provide for, so they’re less likely to be flaky,” Budig said. ”The two are very closely interconnected. This story is part of How We’ll Win in 2019, a year-long exploration of workplace gender equality. That is: instead of owning a business, pharmacists could easily hand off customers or fill in for one another. In 1970, female pharmacists earned just 66 cents for every dollar a man earned, according to Goldin’s study. A small or non-existent pay gap turns into a large pay gap for married women and those with children. Even a woman’s childhood influences the pay gap. policy institute that is dedicated to improving the lives of all “The gender gap in pay would be considerably reduced and might vanish altogether if firms did not have an incentive to disproportionately reward individuals who labored long hours and worked particular hours,” she argues. It wasn’t that women weren’t willing to work overtime—Bolotnyy and Emanuel found when scheduled at least three months in advance, men and women worked comparable overtime—but that women value time and flexibility more than men.


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