Proust analyzed samples of the meteorite from Campo del Cielo (Argentina), which had been obtained in 1783 by Miguel Rubín de Celis, discovering the presence in them of nickel (about 10%) along with iron. Beginning in 1824, nickel was obtained as a byproduct of cobalt blue production. Plural of nickel bag. nickel nurser (English) Noun Still later, in 1865, the term designated the three-cent nickel, with nickel increased to 25%. [18] This configuration agrees with the Madelung energy ordering rule, which predicts that 4s is filled before 3d. [94] Relatively large amounts of nickel – comparable to the estimated average ingestion above – leach into food cooked in stainless steel. [58] The largest deposits of nickel in non-Russian Europe are located in Finland and Greece. Noun Nickel is one of four elements (the others are iron, cobalt, and gadolinium)[7] that are ferromagnetic at approximately room temperature. HTML tags and links are not allowed. It is a silvery-white lustrous metal with a slight golden tinge. Recent advances in hydrometallurgical techniques resulted in significantly purer metallic nickel product. nickel; Finnish: Kolosjoki) is an urban locality (an urban-type settlement) and the administrative center of Pechengsky District of Murmansk Oblast, Russia, located on the shores of Lake Kuets-Yarvi 196 kilometers (122 mi) northwest of Murmansk and 7 kilometers (4.3 mi) from the Norwegian border on . All of the remaining radioactive isotopes have half-lives that are less than 60 hours and the majority of these have half-lives that are less than 30 seconds. A... nickel notes (English) 99.9% nickel five-cent coins were struck in Canada (the world's largest nickel producer at the time) during non-war years from 1922 to 1981; the metal content made these coins magnetic. Chemical element (Ni): previous cobalt (Co), next copper (Cu), "Clive Palmer says he will pay any outstanding entitlements for workers laid off from his Townsville nickel refinery, three years after they lost their jobs. Use of nickel (as a natural meteoric nickel–iron alloy) has been traced as far back as 3500 BCE. found that type 2 diabetic patients have 0.89 ng/ml of Ni in the blood relative to 0.77 ng/ml in the control subjects. Nikel (Russian: Ни́кель, lit. [93] The US Institute of Medicine has not confirmed that nickel is an essential nutrient for humans, so neither a Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) nor an Adequate Intake have been established. However, the United States Mint, in anticipation of this practice, implemented new interim rules on December 14, 2006, subject to public comment for 30 days, which criminalized the melting and export of cents and nickels. Nickel makes the tungsten carbide magnetic and adds corrosion-resistance to the cemented parts, although the hardness is less than those with a cobalt binder. [106][107] The human and animal data consistently indicate a lack of carcinogenicity via the oral route of exposure and limit the carcinogenicity of nickel compounds to respiratory tumours after inhalation. Don't request for help, don't ask questions or complain. [44] Some ancient Chinese manuscripts suggest that "white copper" (cupronickel, known as baitong) was used there between 1700 and 1400 BCE. [14] The high compressive strength of 34 GPa, predicted for ideal crystals, is never obtained in the real bulk material due to the formation and movement of dislocations. [citation needed], At least 26 nickel radioisotopes have been characterised, the most stable being 59Ni with a half-life of 76,000 years, 63Ni with 100 years, and 56Ni with 6 days. The shape of the light curve of these supernovae at intermediate to late-times corresponds to the decay via electron capture of nickel-56 to cobalt-56 and ultimately to iron-56. nickel backs "[120], Reports show that both the nickel-induced activation of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1) and the up-regulation of hypoxia-inducible genes are caused by depletion of intracellular ascorbate. Noun Ni(III) can be stabilized by σ-donor ligands such as thiols and phosphines. Common salts of nickel, such as chloride, nitrate, and sulfate, dissolve in water to give green solutions of the metal aquo complex [Ni(H2O)6]2+. Traditionally, most sulfide ores have been processed using pyrometallurgical techniques to produce a matte for further refining. Many nickel(I) complexes feature Ni-Ni bonding, such as the dark red diamagnetic K4[Ni2(CN)6] prepared by reduction of K2[Ni2(CN)6] with sodium amalgam. Nickel is obtained through extractive metallurgy: it is extracted from the ore by conventional roasting and reduction processes that yield a metal of greater than 75% purity. [14], Originally, the only source for nickel was the rare Kupfernickel. The average daily exposure does not pose a threat to human health. [10] Nickel is an essential nutrient for some microorganisms and plants that have enzymes with nickel as an active site. The references include Cambridge Dictionary Online, Centre National de Ressources Textuelles et Lexicales, Century Dictionary, Dictionary.com, Dictionary of the Scots Language, Dictionnaire Illustré Latin-Français, Duden, Oxford English Dictionary, A hard,... WordSense.eu - English dictionary containing information about the meaning, the spelling, the pronunciation, translations and more.We answer the question: What does nickel‎ mean? [16] Chemistry textbooks quote the electron configuration of nickel as [Ar] 4s2 3d8,[17] which can also be written [Ar] 3d8 4s2. [28], The bulk of the nickel is mined from two types of ore deposits. [22], The stable isotope nickel-60 is the daughter product of the extinct radionuclide 60Fe, which decays with a half-life of 2.6 million years. A second common refining process is leaching the metal matte into a nickel salt solution, followed by the electro-winning of the nickel from solution by plating it onto a cathode as electrolytic nickel. They called this ore Kupfernickel from the German Kupfer for copper. Although we have added all of the meanings of Pentlandite with utmost care but there could be human errors in the translation. [39] Ni(IV) remains a rare oxidation state of nickel and very few compounds are known to date. [59], The one locality in the United States where nickel has been profitably mined is Riddle, Oregon, where several square miles of nickel-bearing garnierite surface deposits are located. The first large-scale smelting of nickel began in Norway in 1848 from nickel-rich pyrrhotite.

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